The present study explains the purpose of critical remarks and further remarks and the different kinds of circumstance which give rise to them. It analyses the follow-up which the institutions, bodies, offices, and agencies concerned have given to critical remarks and further remarks made in 2010 and identifies seven star cases. It also looks at cases that are particularly significant for the Ombudsman's key objectives. Finally, conclusions are drawn as regards the main lessons of the study for the future.
The European Ombudsman serves the general public interest by helping to improve the quality of administration and of service rendered to citizens by the EU institutions. At the same time, the Ombudsman provides the Union's citizens and residents with an alternative remedy to protect their interests. That remedy is complementary to protection by the EU Courts and does not necessarily have the same objective as judicial proceedings.
Only the Courts have power to give legally binding judgments and to provide authoritative interpretations of the law. The Ombudsman can make proposals and recommendations and, as a last resort, draw political attention to a case by making a special report to the European Parliament. The effectiveness of the Ombudsman thus depends on moral authority and, for this reason, it is essential that the Ombudsman’s work be demonstrably fair, impartial, and thorough.
Against this background, further remarks have a single purpose: to serve the public interest by helping the institution concerned to raise the quality of its administration in the future. A further remark is not premised on a finding of maladministration. It should, therefore, not be understood as implying criticism of the institution to which it is addressed but rather as providing advice on how to improve a particular practice in order to enhance the quality of service provided to citizens.
In contrast, a critical remark normally has more than one purpose. Like a further remark, a critical remark always has an educative dimension: it informs the institution of what it has done wrong, so that it can avoid similar maladministration in the future. To maximise its educative potential, a critical remark identifies the rule or principle that was breached and (unless it is obvious) explains what the institution should have done in the particular circumstances of the case. Thus constructed, a critical remark also explains and justifies the Ombudsman's finding of maladministration and thereby seeks to strengthen the confidence of citizens and institutions in the fairness and thoroughness of his work. Moreover, by showing that the Ombudsman is willing publicly to censure the institutions, when necessary, critical remarks enhance public trust in the Ombudsman's impartiality.
A critical remark does not, however, constitute redress for the complainant. Not all complainants claim redress and not all claims for redress are justified. When redress should have been provided, however, closing the case with a critical remark signals a triple failure. The complainant has failed to obtain satisfaction; the institution concerned has failed to put the maladministration right; and the Ombudsman has failed to persuade the institution concerned to alter its position
Where redress should be provided, it is best if the institution concerned takes the initiative, when it receives the complaint, to acknowledge the maladministration and offer suitable redress. In some cases, this could consist of a simple apology.
By taking such action, the institution demonstrates its commitment to improving relations with citizens. It also shows that it is aware of what it did wrong and can thus avoid similar maladministration in the future. In such circumstances, it is unnecessary for the Ombudsman to make a critical remark. If, however, there is a suspicion that the individual case may result from an underlying systemic problem, the Ombudsman may decide to open an own-initiative inquiry, even though the specific case has been resolved to the complainant's satisfaction.